prof. Michael Minkov


Telephone:  (+359) 2 421 9595

Academic Degrees:

  • PhD in Social Anthropology, Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2010 
  • MA in Linguistics, Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1988

Research Interests:

  • Cultural differences in society and management

Course taught:

  • A variety of courses related to Organizational Behavior and Cross-Cultural Differences in Organizational Behavior

Short Biography:

Michael Minkov is a professor of Cross-Cultural Awareness and Organizational Behavior at International University College, Bulgaria. He holds a PhD in Social Anthropology from the State University of Sofia (Kliment Ohridski) and an MA in linguistics, also from that university.

Minkov grew up in his native Bulgaria and spent his adolescence at the Lycee Francais de la Marsa, Tunisia. Later he studied and worked in culturally diverse countries - Iceland, Norway the Faroe Islands (Denmark), Slovenia, the United Kingdom, and the United States - for over five years. In 1995-1998 he studied management at IEDC - Bled School of Management in Slovenia and worked as Secretary General of the Central and East European Management Development Association. This experience resulted in his interest in the interface between culture and management.

Minkov is an academic disciple and associate of Geert Hofstede, the father of scientific cross-cultural analysis across modern nations. Some of Minkov's findings have been accepted by Hofstede as an enrichment and update of his classic model. They have recently published a number of co-authored articles as well as the third edition of Hofstede's classic "Cultures and Organizations; Software of the Mind" (McGraw-Hill, 2010). Minkov has also written two monographs on culture, with contributions by Hofstede: "Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World" (Emerald, 2011) and "Cross-Cultural Analysis; The Science and Art of Comparing the World's Modern Societies and Their Cultures" (Sage, 2013), as well as a number of academic articles in journals, book chapters, and encyclopedia entries.

Minkov has taught seminars at the University of Portsmouth (UK), Erasmus University, Maastricht University, and Stenden University (Netherlands), Bilgi University and Koc University (Turkey), Aarhus University (Denmark), and IBS Moscow (Russia). In addition to his academic work, Minkov works as a freelance teacher and consultant in the area of cross-cultural awareness. His clients include AIMS Human Capital, Air Liquide, Avon, Alpha SOT, Heineken, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Italcementi, Lukoil, Mondi International, Nestle, NetInfo, Shared Services (Coca Cola Hellenic), SDI Group (an Italian consultancy in Tunisia), and Schneider Electric.


  • Minkov, M., Blagoev, V., & Bond, M. (in press). Improving research in the emerging field of cross-cultural sociogenetics: The case of serotonin. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
  • Minkov, M., Blagoev, V., & Bond, M. (in press). Do different national samples yield similar dimensions of national culture? Cross-Cultural Management.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). Nations versus religions. Which has a stronger effect on societal values? Management International Review, 54(6), 801-824.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). A replication of Hofstede's uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 14(2), 161-171.
  • Minkov, M. & Blagoev, V. (2014). Cultural maps of the world. European Journal of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management, 3(1), 4-17.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). Clustering of 316 European regions on measures of values: Do Europe's countries have national cultures? Cross-Cultural Research, 48(2), 144-176.
  • Minkov, M. (2014). The K factor, societal hypometropia, and national values: A study of 71 nations. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 153-159.
  • Minkov, M. & Blagoev, V. (2014). Is there a distinct Asian management culture? Asia Pacific Management Review, 20(2), 209-215.
  • Minkov, M., Blagoev, V., & Hofstede, G. (2013). The boundaries of culture; Do questions about societal norms reveal cultural differences? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44 (7), 1094-1106.
  • Minkov, M. & Hofstede, G. (2012). Is national culture a meaningful concept? Cultural values delineate homogeneous national clusters of in-country regions. Cross-Cultural Research46(2), 133-159.
  • Minkov, M., & Blagoev, V. (2012). What do GLOBE's cultural dimensions reflect? An empirical validation. Asia Pacific Business Review, 18 (1), 27-43.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2012). Hofstede's fifth dimension; New evidence from the World Values Survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43 (1), 3-14.
  • Minkov, M., Hofstede, G. J., & Hofstede, G. (2012). Cross-cultural analysis.Thousand Oaks: Sage (forthcoming)
  • Minkov, M. (2011). Cultural differences in a globalizing world. Emerald (forthcoming)
  • Minkov, M. (2011). World Values Survey. In Ritzer, G. (ed.). Encyclopedia of globalization. Wiley-Blackwell (forthcoming)
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2011). Hofstede's fifth dimension; New evidence from the World Values Survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology(forthcoming)
  • Minkov, M., & Blagoev, V. (2011). What do GLOBE's cultural dimensions reflect? An empirical validation. Asia Pacific Business Review (forthcoming)
  • Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M. (2010). Long- versus short-term orientation: New perspectives. Asia Pacific Business Review (forthcoming)
  • Minkov, M. (2010). Predictors of national suicide rates; A reply to Voracek.Psychological Reports, 106, 718-720.
  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations; Software of the mind (3rd edition). New York: McGraw Hill
  • Minkov, M. (2009). Nations with more dialectical selves exhibit lower polarization in life quality judgments and social opinions. Cross-Cultural Research, 43, 230-250.
  • Minkov (2009). Predictors of differences in subjective well-being across 97 nations. Cross-Cultural Research, 43, 152-179.
  • Minkov, M. & Blagoev, V. (2009). Cultural values predict subsequent economic growth. International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management9 (1), 5-24.
  • Minkov, M. (2009). Risk-taking reproductive competition explains national murder rates better than socioeconomic inequality. Cross-Cultural Research, 43,3-29
  • Minkov, M. (2008). Self-enhancement and self-stability predict school achievement at the national level. Cross-Cultural Research, 42, 172-196.
  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., Minkov, M., & Vinken, H. (2008). Values Survey Module 2008. Internet publication. http://feweb.uvt.nl/center/hofstede/index.htm).
  • Minkov, M. (2007). What makes us different and similar; A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other cross-cultural data. Sofia: Klasika i Stil.
  • Минков, М. (2007). Защо сме различни. Второ преработено издание. София: Класика и стил.
  • Minkov, M. (2000). Organizational attitudes in modern Scandinavia and their roots as evidenced in medieval texts. In E. Ruskova (ed.). The Vikings: Navigators, discoverers, creators. Sofia: Sofia University Press.
  • Minkov, M. (1997). A concise grammar of Western Bulgarian Romani. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 5 (7), 55-95.
  • Minkov, M. (1988). Sneglu-Halli, 2:11: Drottinserdr. Saga-Book22 (5), 285-286.